Best VPN For Personal Use – 10 Best VPN Services

VPN is now one of the most necessary things on our PC, in fact for some it is already a pre-requisite of using internet. There are several reasons for which netizens now need VPN, lets highlight some of the most important reasons for which VPN is used,

For Secure and Private Internet Browsing
For Secure and Private Information Transfer
To Bypass all Internet Censorship
To Access all Geo-Blocked content
To be anonymous and to hide identity
To access Hulu & Netflix Outside USA
To access BBC iPlayer outside UK
To anonymously download torrents
To securely shop around the world
To remotely access centralized information
Infinite other uses

There are several other uses of Personal VPN; however, the most important ones are already listed above.

Another reason for which I am separately writing this post is that first time VPN users often misinterpret VPN and think that VPN is very technical especially after what they get when they type ‘VPN’ on Google Search.

Yes, VPN is technical, but for users who will use it personally. It is technical for all those corporations and businesses as they use it to secure their communication and servers from unauthenticated access.

Yes, it is technical, but only if we are discussing here business VPNs like Cisco, Juniper and several others.

No, it is not technical for users like you and me, that is why it is called Personal VPN and not corporate or business VPN. Personal VPN is extremely easy to use and most of the Personal VPN Services come with not more than 1 minute setup and simple VPN software to download. Personal VPN require no hardware installation and it does not need literally any networking device or experience in using or installing. It is a simple plug and play technology like any other software or program in your PC.

There are several Personal VPN Services available in the industry, agreed, some of them are not up to the standard, but some offer excellent services with excellent customer service and support. Therefore, I have a list of Top 15 Personal VPN Services for you.

Rank

Name

Start Price

1

Hidemyass

$ 11.52/Month

2

PureVPN

$ 9.95/Month

3

IAPS VPN

$ 12.95/Month

4

StrongVPN

$ 21/3 Months

5

ExpressVPN

$ 12.95/Month

6

VPN Tunnel

$ 7.18/Month

7

Switch VPN

$ 5.95/Month

8

Ivacy VPN

$ 6.81/Month

9

VyprVPN

$ 14.99/Month

10

ibVPN

$ 4.96/Month

This is not the entire list of Best Personal VPN Services, there are several other which are reliable and are operating on standards in the industry. Feel Free to add them in the comments and for your reference here is the complete list of all the VPN Services. These VPN Services are ranked here for their customer support, features, reliability, connection stability, servers and countries they offer. Here is our  rating criteria.

Cisco Catalyst 6000/6500, Aim at Enterprise Network & Service Provider Networks

Article by Irisdan

The Cisco Catalyst 6000/6500 family represents the flagship of the Cisco Catalyst switching product range. The switch is aimed at the enterprise network and also at service provider networks. The Catalyst 6000/6500 is chassis-based, which means that it consists of the same fundamental components as a Catalyst 4000/4500 switch (i.e., chassis, supervisor engine, and switching modules), which are now discussed in more detail.

Catalyst 6000/6500 ChassisThe chassis provided by the Catalyst 6000/6500 series switches vary across the Catalyst 6000 and Catalyst 6500 family. The differences between the Catalyst 6000 series chassis and Catalyst 6500 series are listed below:• Backplane– Both the Catalyst 6000 and Catalyst 6500 contain a shared 32-Gbps backplane; however, the Catalyst 6500 also supports an upgrade to a 256-Gbps crossbar switching matrix by adding an optional switch fabric module.• Scalability– The Catalyst 6000 is provided only in a 6-slot chassis (6006) and 9-slot (6009) chassis, while the 6500 provides 3-slot (6503), 6-slot (6506), 9-slot (6509), and 13-slot (6513) chassis options.

Supervisor EnginesThe Cisco Catalyst 6000/6500 switch family consists of three Supervisor engines, which each vary in terms of functionality and performance:• Supervisor 1A– Provides support for advanced security and QoS features, as well as MLS-based (Multilayer switching) Layer 3 switching. The Supervisor 1A supports a backplane capacity of 32 Gbps and a Layer 2/Layer 3 forwarding rate of up to 15 Mpps.• Supervisor 2– Provides support for advanced security and QoS features, as well as CEF-based (Cisco Express Forwarding) Layer 3 switching. The Supervisor 2 also supports the switch fabric module (SFM), which increases backplane capacity from 32 Gbps to 256 Gbps and supports a Layer 2/Layer 3 forwarding rate of up to 210 Mpps.• Supervisor 720– Provides support for advanced security and QoS features, as well as advanced CEF-based Layer 3 switching. The Layer 3 switching engine supports IPv6 routing, network address translation, GRE tunneling, and MPLS all in hardware. The Supervisor 720 includes a crossbar switching matrix (formerly provided via the separate SFM in conjunction with the Supervisor 2), which provides a backplane capacity of 720 Gbps and a Layer 2/Layer 3 forwarding rate of up to 200 Mpps (IPv6) and 400 Mpps (IPv4). The Supervisor 720 also includes PFC3 and MSFC3 daughter cards (discussed later), which provide the Layer 3 switching capabilities of the Supervisor.

All supervisors can be installed in redundant pairs, ensuring maximum availability in the event of an active supervisor failure. Any additional add-on modules that extend system performance or functionality (e.g., SFM, PFC daughter card, and MSFC daughter card) can also be installed in a redundant configuration, ensuring the highest levels of availability

You have learned that the Supervisor 2 engine supports the SFM; each Supervisor also supports two types of add-on modules onboard the Supervisor itself (i.e., daughter cards), which extend the functionality and performance of the supervisor engine to provide the features and performance described above. These daughter cards are described as follows:• Policy feature card (PFC)– The PFC provides Layer 3/4 intelligence, allowing for advanced security and QoS features to be applied based upon the Layer 3 and Layer 4 parameters of traffic. The PFC also provides the hardware forwarding engine when Layer 3 switching is enabled with the addition of an MSFC. The PFC can be installed just by itself, without the MSFC (discussed next).• Multilayer switching feature card (MSFC)– The MSFC is essentially a router on a daughter card, providing full Layer 3 routing functionality and enabling the Catalyst 6000/6500 to perform Layer 3 switching. In a Layer 3 switching configuration, the MSFC provides the control plane component of L3 switching (i.e., populating and maintaining the routing table), while the PFC provides the data plane component of L3 switching (i.e., rewriting frame and packet headers and switching routed packets to the appropriate egress port), which means you must have a PFC installed before installing an MSFC. The MSFC also allows the switch to operate in native IOS, where the Supervisor and MSFC are managed via a single Cisco IOS-based management interface, integrating Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching management (similar to the Catalyst 3550 EMI and Catalyst 4000/4500 Supervisor 3/4).

NOTEWithout a MSFC, the Catalyst 6000/6500 Supervisor engines operate the CatOS operating system. When you add a MSFC, by default, the Supervisor still runs CatOS and the MSFC runs Cisco IOS (this configuration is known as referred to as hybrid IOS). You can then configure the switch to operate in native IOS mode, where the Supervisor and MSFC are managed by the same Cisco IOS management interface, as long as the switch has an MSFC installed.

There are three generations of PFC and MSFC modules, with various combinations of Supervisor engines and different versions of PFC and MSFC modules making it a reasonably complex task to understand which features are supported in each configuration. Chapter 6, “Layer 3 Switching,” discusses the features of the various Supervisor, PFC, and MSFC configurations in more detail.Switching Modules

On the Catalyst 6000/6500, you can purchase three types of line cards:• Classic– A classic module connects to the 32-Gbps shared backplane only.• Fabric-enabled– A fabric-enabled module connects to both the 32-Gbps backplane and also has an 8-Gbps full-duplex connection to the 256-Gbps crossbar switch matrix (requires Supervisor 720 or switch fabric module installed).• Fabric-only– Connects only to the 256-Gbps crossbar switch matrix via dual 8-Gbps full-duplex connections (requires Supervisor 720 or switch fabric module installed).Even though there are three types of modules, all modules can communicate with each other, even if they are attached to different switching backplanes (e.g., classic and fabric-only cards are not connected to the same bus). In this situation, an interconnection between the crossbar switching matrix is interconnected with the shared bus backplane allows classic cards and fabric-only cards to communicate. Table 1-8 lists some of the LAN switching modules available for the Catalyst 6000/6500.Perhaps one of the best features of the Catalyst 6000/6500 switch is the capability to extend switch functionality well outside the bounds of pure LAN switching and Layer 3 switching. The Catalyst 6000/6500 not only provides LAN switching modules, which allow for high-density 10/100BASE-T, 10/100/1000BASE-T, and 1000BASE-X deployments, but also provides a wide range of other modules called services modules that extend and enhance the functionality of the Catalyst 6000/6500. The following lists some examples of the services modules available for the Catalyst 6000/6500 switch:• Firewall services module (WS-SVC-FWM-1-K9)– Essentially a PIX firewall on steroids, this module provides up to 5 Gbps firewall throughput, ensuring advanced security features can be implemented in the network without compromising performance.• IPSec virtual private network (VPN) services module (WS-SVC-IPSEC-1)– Provides up to 1.9 Gbps of triple DES VPN performance, ensuring private data can be protected without comprising performance.• Intrusion detection system module (WS-SVC-IDS2BUNK9), also known as IDSM)– Analyzes traffic from multiple VLANs for intrusive activity that might indicate an attack against the network, generating alarms and configuring security devices to block attacks. The latest IDSM can analyze up to 600 Mbps of traffic.• Content switching module (WS-SVC-CSG-1)– Provides intelligent application-layer load balancing for web server farms and other application server farms, providing enhanced performance, availability, and scalability.• Network analysis module (WS-SVC-NAM-x)– Provides intelligent network monitoring using Remote Monitoring (RMON) and network statistics using NetFlow capture.

As you can see from the preceding, the Catalyst 6000/6500 is not just a LAN switch; it is a platform that can integrate LAN switching features with advanced security, application, and network management features.Catalyst Operating SystemsToday there are two main operating systems that are used on Cisco Catalyst switches:• Catalyst Operating System (CatOS)• Cisco Internetwork Operating System (Cisco IOS)

More details you can read at router-switch.com

Choosing Online Backup Services

With technology rapidly growing data communications, data storage is increasingly easy to do online. More and more people store data on a remote server. This provides many advantages, such as data becomes more secure, data can be accessed from anywhere, and data security become more secure. We also do not need to buy our own storage media, such as hard drive or other storage media. Moreover, with cloud computing technology that is currently growing. Most companies do not want to be bothered with maintaining their own data, so they prefer to store their data in the cloud server. Too many personal users who choose to store their data in online storage.

Today many companies offering online backup service. Online backup is a service where users can backup their data into the online servers, which run automatically by the client software on scheduled time. One company that offers online backup service is adrive. Adrive was chosen by the user because of its simplicity. User does not require a complicated system for backing up data. Adrive also have an excellent customer service, which is ready to help you 24 hours 7 days. If you need a simple online backup service with good customer service, Adrive is the right choice.

Cisco CCNA redefines perfection of knowledge in Networking

Article by Aliyasen110

Cisco is an American Multinational Corporation in San Jose, California, USA. Cisco Certified Network Associate, (CCNA) is a certification from Cisco which is a second-level Cisco Career Certification. CCNA certification authorizes the ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size routed and switched networks, including implementation and verification of connections to remote sites in a WAN.

To achieve CCNA CCNA certification, one must earn a passing score on Cisco exam. Passing the ICND1 grants one the Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician (CCENT) certification. The lowest level of Cisco’s certification is CCENT which covers basic networking knowledge. Passing scores are set by using statistical analysis and are subject to change. At the completion of the exam, candidates receive a score report along with a score breakout by exam section and the passing score for the given exam.

Cisco Career Certifications are IT Professional Certifications for Cisco Systems products. There are five levels of certification: Entry, Associate, Professional, Expert, and Architect. These are applied in seven different subject areas: Routing & Switching, Design, Network Security, Service Provider, Storage Networking, Voice, and Wireless.

Associate Certifications is the 2nd of 5 levels of Cisco certifications. This level divides all Cisco certifications into separate subject matter paths.

CCNA Security validates knowledge of security infrastructure, threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and threat mitigation.

The Cisco CCNA Voice certification validates a skill set for specialized job roles in voice technologies such as voice technologies administrator, voice engineer, and voice manager.

The CCNA Wireless certification validates the knowledge of professionals supporting wireless LANs including Networking Associates/Administrators, Wireless Support Specialists and WLAN project managers. The CCNA Wireless certification involves implementing Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Essentials.

CCNA Service Provider Operations validates basic knowledge and skills in a prescriptive troubleshooting environment within a carrier class IP NGN core network infrastructure.

Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certifies the ability to work with medium-sized networks with technologies such as QoS, broadband, VPNs, and security-oriented features.

Cisco Certified Internetwork Professional (CCIP) certification is a professional certification covering the end-to-end protocols used in large scale networks.

Cisco Certified Network Professional-Security (CCNP-Security) certification program is aligned specifically to the job role of the Cisco Network Security Engineer responsible for security in routers, switches, networking devices and appliances, as well as choosing, deploying, supporting and troubleshooting firewalls, VPNS, and IDS/IPS solutions for their networking environments.

Cisco Certified Wireless Professional (CCNP Wireless)The CCNP Wireless is a certification covering all aspects of wireless networking principles and theory.

Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert is the highest level of professional certification.

Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) recognizes the architectural experience and competency of network designers who can support the increasingly complex networks of global organizations and effectively translate business strategies into evolutionary technical strategies.To know more about this article : http://www.slideshare.net/SameerVaity/cisco-ccna-redefines-perfection-of-knowledge-in-networking

Best VPN For Personal Use – 10 Best VPN Services

Article by John

VPN is now one of the most necessary things on our PC, in fact for some it is already a pre-requisite of using internet. There are several reasons for which netizens now need VPN, lets highlight some of the most important reasons for which VPN is used,

• For Secure and Private Internet Browsing• For Secure and Private Information Transfer• To Bypass all Internet Censorship• To Access all Geo-Blocked content• To be anonymous and to hide identity• To access Hulu & Netflix Outside USA • To access BBC iPlayer outside UK• To anonymously download torrents• To securely shop around the world• To remotely access centralized information• Infinite other uses

There are several other uses of Personal VPN; however, the most important ones are already listed above. Another reason for which I am separately writing this post is that first time VPN users often misinterpret VPN and think that VPN is very technical especially after what they get when they type ‘VPN’ on Google Search.Yes, VPN is technical, but for users who will use it personally. It is technical for all those corporations and businesses as they use it to secure their communication and servers from unauthenticated access. Yes, it is technical, but only if we are discussing here business VPNs like Cisco, Juniper and several others.No, it is not technical for users like you and me, that is why it is called Personal VPN and not corporate or business VPN. Personal VPN is extremely easy to use and most of the Personal VPN Services come with not more than 1 minute setup and simple VPN software to download. Personal VPN require no hardware installation and it does not need literally any networking device or experience in using or installing. It is a simple plug and play technology like any other software or program in your PC.There are several Personal VPN Services available in the industry, agreed, some of them are not up to the standard, but some offer excellent services with excellent customer service and support. Therefore, I have a list of Top 15 Personal VPN Services for you.

Rank Name Start Price1 Hidemyass $ 11.52/Month2 PureVPN $ 9.95/Month3 IAPS VPN $ 12.95/Month4 StrongVPN $ 21/3 Months5 ExpressVPN $ 12.95/Month6 VPN Tunnel $ 7.18/Month7 Switch VPN $ 5.95/Month8 Ivacy VPN $ 6.81/Month9 VyprVPN $ 14.99/Month10 ibVPN $ 4.96/Month

This is not the entire list of Best Personal VPN Services, there are several other which are reliable and are operating on standards in the industry. Feel Free to add them in the comments and for your reference here is the complete list of all the VPN Services. These VPN Services are ranked here for their customer support, features, reliability, connection stability, servers and countries they offer. Here is our rating criteria.

Cisco Pix

History

PIX was originally conceived in early 1994 by John Mayes of Redwood City, California and designed and coded by Brantley Coile of Athens, Georgia. The PIX name is derived from its creators’ aim of creating the functional equivalent of an IP PBX to solve the then-emerging registered IP address shortage. At a time when NAT was just being investigated as a viable approach, they wanted to conceal a block or blocks of IP addresses behind a single or multiple registered IP addresses, much like PBX’s do for internal phone extensions. When they began, RFC 1597 and RFC 1631 were being discussed, but the now-familiar RFC 1918 had not yet been submitted.

The design, and testing were carried out in 1994 by John Mayes, Brantley Coile and Johnson Wu of Network Translation, Inc., with Brantley Coile being the sole software developer. Beta testing of PIX serial number 000000 was completed and first customer acceptance was on December 21, 1994 at KLA Instruments in San Jose, California. The PIX quickly became one of the leading enterprise firewall products and was awarded the Data Communications Magazine “Hot Product of the Year” award in January of 1995.

After Cisco acquired Network Translation in November 1995, Mayes and Coile hired four long time associates: Jim Jordan, Tom Bohannon, and Richard Howes and Pete Tenereillo (both who worked for NTI prior to the acquisition). Together they continued development on Finesse OS and the original version of the Cisco PIX Firewall, now known as the PIX “Classic”. During this time, the PIX shared most of its code with another Cisco product, the LocalDirector.

End-of-Life

On January 28, 2008, Cisco announced the end-of-sale and end-of-life dates for all Cisco PIX Security Appliances, software, accessories, and licenses. The last day for purchasing Cisco PIX Security Appliance platforms and bundles was July 28, 2008. The last day to purchase accessories and licenses was January 27, 2009. Cisco will continue to support Cisco PIX Security Appliance customers through July 27, 2013.

Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA)

Main article: Cisco ASA

In May 2005, Cisco introduced the Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) which combines functionality from the PIX, VPN 3000 series and IPS product lines. The ASA series of devices run PIX code 7.0 and later. Through PIX OS release 7.x the PIX and the ASA use the same software images. Beginning with PIX OS version 8.x, the operating system code diverges, with the ASA using a Linux kernel and PIX continuing to use the traditional Finesse/PIX OS combination.

Description of operation

The PIX runs a custom-written proprietary operating system originally called Finesse (Fast InterNEt Server Executive), but now the software is known simply as PIX OS. It is classified as a network layer firewall with stateful inspection, although technically the PIX would more precisely be called a Layer 4, or Transport Layer Firewall, as its access is not restricted to Network Layer routing, but socket based connections (a port and an IP Address – Port communications occur at Layer 4). By default it allows internal connections out (outbound traffic), and only allows inbound traffic that is a response to a valid request or is allowed by an Access Control List (ACL) or a conduit. The PIX can be configured to perform many functions including network address translation (NAT) and port address translation (PAT), as well as being a virtual private network (VPN) endpoint appliance.

The PIX was the first commercially available firewall product to introduce protocol specific filtering with the introduction of the “fixup” command. The PIX “fixup” capability allows the Firewall to apply additional security policies to connections identified as using specific protocols. Two protocols for which specific fixup behaviors were developed are DNS and SMTP. The DNS fixup originally implemented a very simple but effective security policy; it allowed just one DNS response from a DNS server on the Internet (known as outside interface) for each DNS request from a client on the protected (known as inside) interface. “Fixup” has been superseded by “Inspect” on later versions of PIX OS.

The Cisco PIX was also one of the first commercially available security appliances to incorporate IPSec VPN gateway functionality.

The PIX can be managed by a command line interface (CLI) or a graphical user interface (GUI). The CLI is accessible from the serial console, telnet and SSH. GUI administration was introduced with version 4.1, and it has been through several incarnations: PIX Firewall Manager (PFM) for PIX OS versions 4.x and 5.x, which runs locally on a Windows NT client; PIX Device Manager (PDM) for PIX OS version 6.x, which runs over https and requires Java; and Adaptive Security Device Manager (ASDM) for PIX OS version 7 and greater, which can run locally on a client or in reduced-functionality mode over HTTPS. Examples of emulators include PEMU and Dynagen, and with NetworkSims.com ProfSIMs (Networksims) for a simulator .

As the PIX is an acquired product, the CLI was originally not aligned with the Cisco IOS syntax. Starting with version 7.0, the configuration is much more IOS-like. As the PIX only supports IP traffic (as opposed to IPX, DECNet, etc.), in most configuration commands ‘ip’ is omitted. The configuration is upwards compatible, but not downwards. When a 5.x or 6.x configuration is loaded on a 7.x platform, the configuration is automatically converted to 7.x formatting, as long as the configuration was using ACLs, versus conduits and “outbounds”. This allows for an easy migration from PIX to ASA. PIX OS v7.0 is only supported on models 515, 515(E), 525 and 535. Although the 501 and 506E are relatively recent models, the flash memory size of only 8 MB prevents support of version 7.x, although rumors suggest that 7.0 can be installed on a 506E (see external links). The 8MB flash size only allows for installation of the PIX OS software, not the ASDM software (GUI). For the PIX 515(E), a doubling of the memory size is required (32->64 MB for restricted and 64->128MB for Unrestricted/Failover licenses). A 515(E) UR/FO can run 7.0 with 64 MB memory installed, but that is not recommended as larger configuration and session/xlate tables can exceed the available memory.

Description of hardware

PIX 515 with top cover removed.

The original NTI PIX and the PIX Classic had cases that were sourced from OEM provider Appro. All flash cards and the early encryption acceleration cards, the PIX-PL and PIX-PL2, were sourced from Productivity Enhancement Products (PEP). Later models had cases from Cisco OEM manufacturers.

The PIX was constructed using Intel-based/Intel-compatible motherboards; the PIX 501 used an AMD 5×86 processor, and all other standalone models used Intel 80486 through Pentium III processors. Nearly all PIXes used Ethernet NIC’s with Intel 82557, 82558, and 82559 network chipsets, but some older models are occasionally found with 3COM 3c590 and 3c595 Ethernet cards, Olicom-based Token-Ring cards, and Interphase-based FDDI cards.

Some Intel-based Ethernet cards for the PIX are identified at boot with the designation “mcwa”. This designation denotes a multicast receive bug in the card’s firmware that the designers addressed with a feature they called Multi Cast Work Around.

Both the PIX 510 and 520 share basic components, such as motherboard, chassis, NIC’s, flash cards, etc, with the Cisco LocalDirector 416/420/430, the Cisco Service Selector Gateway 6510 (SSG-6510), and the Cisco Cache Engine CE2050, though the latter two run VxWorks, rather than a Finesse derivative.

The PIX boots off a proprietary ISA flash memory daughtercard in the case of the NTI PIX, PIX Classic, 10000, 510, 520, and 535, and it boots off integrated flash memory in the case of the PIX 501, 506/506e, 515/515e, 525, and WS-SVC-FWM-1-K9.

The PIX technology implemented in the FWSM, for the Catalyst 6500 and the 7600 Router, has a part code of WS-SVC-FWM-1-K9.

Specifications of past and present models

Current models

Model

501

506e

515e

525

535

FWSM

Introduced

2001

2002

2002

2000

2000

2003

Discontinued

2008

2008

2008

2008

2008

CPU type

AMD

SC520 5×86

Intel

Celeron

(Mendocino SL36A)

Intel

Celeron

(Mendocino SL3BA)

Intel

Pentium III

(Coppermine)

Intel

Pentium III

(Coppermine)

One Intel Pentium III and three IBM 4GS3 PowerNP network processors

CPU speed

133 MHz

300 MHz

433 MHz

600 MHz

1 GHz

1 GHz

Chipset

AMD

SC520

Intel

440BX

Seattle

Intel

440BX

Seattle

Intel

440BX

Seattle

Broadcom

Serverworks

RCC

 ?

Default RAM

16 MB

32 MB

64 (128) MB

128 (256) MB

512 (1024) MB

1 GB

Boot flash device

Onboard

Onboard

Onboard

Onboard

ISA card &

Onboard

Onboard

Default flash

8 MB

8 MB

16 MB

16 MB

16 MB

128 MB

Boot flash chips

1 x 28F640

1 x 28F640

1 x E28F128J3

1 x EF28F128J3

2 x i28F640J5

ATA CompactFlash

PIX BIOS flash chips

28F640

AM29F400B

AM29F400B

AM29F400B/

E28F400B5T

DA28F320J5

Minimum PIX OS version

6.1(1)

5.1(x)

5.1(x)

5.2(x)

5.3(x)

FWSM 2.3(x)

Maximum PIX OS version officially supported

Latest 6.3(x)

Latest 6.3(x)

8.x

8.x

8.x

FWSM 4.0(x)

Max interfaces

2

2

3(6)

6(10)

8(14)

Fixed internal interface

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

No

No

Fixed external interface

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

10/100baseT

No

No

PCI slots

0

0

2

3

9

1

Expansion cards supported

No

No

1 port FE,

4 port FE,

1 port 1000baseSX

1 port FE,

4 port FE,

1 port 1000baseSX

1 port FE,

4 port FE,

1 port 1000baseSX

Yes

Supports SSL VPN

No

No

No

No

No

No

VPN accelerator supported

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Floppy drive

No

No

No

No

No

No

Failover supported

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Model

501

506e

515e

525

535

FWSM

Discontinued models

Model

NTI PIX

Classic

47-3158-01

10000

506

510

515

520

Introduced

1994

1995

1996

2000

1997

1999

1999

Discontinued

1995

1998

1998

2002

1999

2002

2001

CPU type

Intel 486DX2/

Intel Pentium

Intel Pentium

Intel

Pentium Pro

Intel

Pentium MMX

Intel

Pentium

Intel

Pentium MMX

Intel

Pentium II

(Deschutes)

CPU speed

66 / 90 MHz

100~133 MHz

200 MHz

200 MHz

166 MHz

200 MHz

233~350 MHz

Chipset

Intel

430FX/TX

Intel

440FX

Natoma

Intel

430TX

Intel

430TX

Intel

430TX

440LX/BX

Balboa/

Seattle

Default RAM

4 MB

8 MB

16 MB

32 MB

16 MB

32 (64) MB

128 MB

Boot flash device

ISA card

ISA card

ISA card

Onboard

ISA card

Onboard

ISA card

Default flash

512KB

512KB /

2 MB

2 MB

8 MB

2 MB

16 MB

2 MB / 16 MB

Boot flash chips

2 x i28f020

2 x i28f020 /

4 x 29C040

4 x 29C040

1 x i28F640J5

4 x 29C040

2 x i28F640J5

4 x 29C040 /

2 x i28F640J5

PIX BIOS flash chips

AM28F256

AM28F256

AM28F256

AT29C257

AM28F256

AT29C257

AM28F256/

AT29C257

Minimum PIX OS version

1.x

2.x

4.4(x)

4.4(x)

4.4(x)

5.1(x)

4.4(x)

Maximum PIX OS version

4.2(2)

4.2(2)

5.1(x)

5.1(x)

Latest 6.3(x)

5.3(4)

Latest 8.x

Latest 6.3(x)

Max interfaces

2

6(3)

8(6)

Fixed internal interface

No

No

No

10baseT

No

10/100baseT

No

Fixed external interface

No

No

No

10baseT

No

10/100baseT

No

PCI slots

 ?

4

4

0

4+

2

4+

Expansion cards supported

 ?

1 port FE,

1 port Token Ring,

1 port FDDI

1 port FE,

1 port Token Ring,

1 port FDDI

No

1 port FE,

1 port Token Ring,

1 port FDDI

1 port FE,

4 port FE,

1 port 1000baseSX

1 port FE,

4 port FE,

1 port 1000baseSX

VPN accelerator supported

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Floppy drive

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

Failover supported

No

No/Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Model

NTI PIX

Classic

10000

506

510

515

520

—Information on models supported as of 6/27/2005 verified from Cisco’s PIX Brochure (page 2) and the specific product pages

Performance specifications

Model

PIX Classic

PIX 10000

PIX 501

PIX 506

PIX 506e

PIX 510

PIX 515

PIX 515e

PIX 520

PIX 525

PIX 535

ASA 5520

FWSM

Cleartext throughput, Mbit/s

90

60

20

100

147

190

240

330

1655

450

5500

56-bit DES throughput, Mbit/s

6

20

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

 ?

n/a

168-bit Triple DES throughput, Mbit/s

3

6

16

10 / 63 (135)

20 / 63 (135)

20

30 / 72 (145)

50 / 100 (425)

225

n/a

AES-128 throughput, Mbit/s

4.5

30

45 / 130

65 / 135

110 / 495

225

n/a

AES-256 throughput, Mbit/s

3.4

25

35 / 130

50 / 135

90 / 425

225

n/a

Max simultaneous connections

16,000

7,500

10,000

25,000

64,000 / 128,000

48,000 / 130,000

256,000

140,000 / 280,000

250,000 / 500,000

280,000

999,900 total / 100,000 per second

Max simultaneous hosts (users)

10 / 50 / Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

128 / 1000 / unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

 ?

256,000

Max number of ACL entries

 ?

80,000

Max simultaneous VPN peers

10

25

25

0 / 2000

0 / 2000

0 / 2000

750 IPSec, 750 SSL

n/a

Model

PIX Classic

PIX 10000

PIX 501

PIX 506

PIX 506e

PIX 510

PIX 515

PIX 515e

PIX 520

PIX 525

PIX 535

ASA 5520

FWSM

—Information on models supported as of 6/27/2005 verified from Cisco’s PIX Brochure (page 2) and the specific product pages

List of part numbers for PCI, ISA, and EISA expansion cards

PIX 512KB flash memory card

PIX-PL2 encryption card

Flash cards

??? – 512 kB ISA flash card used in the original NTI PIX, PIX Classic and 10000. It is manufactured by Productivity Enhancement Products. Aside from progressive manufacturing refinements, the 512KB and 2MB flash cards were identical aside from the chips that populated it. Both booted from a 28F256 chip, but the 512KB card only populated two of the flash sockets with 28F020 chips, while the 2MB card populated all four sockets with 29C040 chips

??? – 2 MB ISA flash card used in the PIX Classic, 10000, 510, and 520, as well as the SSG-6510 and many LocalDirectors. It is manufactured by Productivity Enhancement Products.

PIX-FLASH-16MB – 16 MB ISA flash card for the PIX 510, 520, and 535. It is manufactured by Productivity Enhancement Products.

Ethernet cards

PIX-1GE-66 – 64 bit/66 MHz PCI 1000baseSX card for PIX 53x. Based on the Intel Pro/1000-F fiber network card using the Intel TL82543GC (Intel code name “Livengood”) ASIC (PWLA8490sx). The 1000baseT variant of this card, the Intel Pro/1000-t Server adapter (PWLA8490t), is not supported by PIX OS, due to Carrier Extension interoperability problems with early 1000baseT switch products .

PIX-1GE – 32 bit/33 MHz PCI 1000baseSX card for PIX 52x. Based on the Intel PWLA8490 Pro/1000 fiber network card with the 82542 (Intel code name “Wiseman”) chipset. The ASIC used on this card is the LSI L2A1157/695314-003. . There is no 1000baseT variant of this card. In the release notes for PIX OS 6.02, Cisco advises against installing this card in the 525 and 535 , referencing caveat CSCdu00850, although this caveat actually only lists the PIX 535, which is the only model with a 66 MHz PCI bus.

PIX-4FE-66 – 64 bit/66 MHz PCI Four port 10/100 Fast Ethernet card. Based on the Intel 82559 chipset. Uses a DEC 21154BE bridge chip.

PIX-4FE – 32 bit/33 MHz PCI Four port 10/100 Fast Ethernet card. Based on the Intel 82558b chipset. Uses an Intel 21154AC or DEC 21154AB bridge chip.

PIX-1FE – 32 bit/33 MHz PCI Single-port 10/100 Fast Ethernet card. Based on the Intel Pro/100+ family with the 82557, 82558 and 82559 chipsets.

??? – 3COM 3c590 and 3c595 PCI NICs occasionally found in NTI PIX, PIX Classic, 10000, 510, 515, and 520. Mentioned in version 4.4.1 install guide and supported through at least PIX OS 5.1.5 . Since these are off-the-shelf PC components predating the creation of the PIX, there may not be PIX-specific part numbers for these at all.

VPN/Encryption acceleration cards

PIX-VAC-PLUS – 64 bit/66 MHz PCI IPSec Hardware VPN Accelerator Card, identified by PIX OS as a PIX-VAC+. Supported by the 515, 515e, 520, 525, and 535 running PIX OS 6.3(1) or higher. Accelerates DES, 3DES, and AES. Part number 74-3176-01. Uses the Broadcom BCM5823KPB-5 chip.

PIX-VPN-ACCEL – 32 bit/33 MHz PCI IPSec Hardware VPN Accelerator Card, identified by PIX OS as a PIX-VAC. Accelerates DES and 3DES. This is a repackaged IRE SafeNet CryptPCI 413-10004 rev 2.3 card. It uses the Analog Devices ADSP-2141L chip. Its part number is 74-1908-01.

PIX-PL2 – 32 bit/33 MHz PCI proprietary DES encryption card (discontinued and unsupported from PIX OS 6.0.1 on). It is manufactured by Productivity Enhancement Products.

PIX-PL – 32 bit/8 MHz EISA encryption card found in some early PIXes. It is manufactured by Productivity Enhancement Products.

FDDI and Token Ring cards

PIX-1TR – 32 bit/33 MHz 4/16 Mbit/s PCI Token Ring card based on the Olicom OC-3137/PE-67597 (discontinued and unsupported from PIX OS 6.0.1 on).

PIX-FDDI – 32 bit/33 MHz 100 Mbit/s SC duplex PCI FDDI card based on the Interphase 5511 FDDI card (PB05511-002). It was discontinued and unsupported from PIX OS 6.0.1 on.

Footnotes

^ Only the first few NTI PIXes came with the 486 processor; the rest came with a Pentium processor.

^  The “inside” port is connected to an internal, unmanaged, auto-polarity 4 port switch.

^  Restricted package / Unrestricted package limits (referred to by Cisco as R and UR/FO/FO-AA, respective

642-780 – Maintaining Cisco Service Provider VPNs and MPLS Networks Preparation

Article by Jenniferr.penley

In the information technology world, Cisco programs are popular and in fact, the most famous certification these days. This was introduced as entry level certifications for Cisco career programs. Cisco is internationally recognized certification certified with competence of internetworking professional in routing, connectivity and switching. And 642-780 exam certifications are one of the first steps. The essence of Cisco certification is not just concentrated in the IT world, but it adds proof to solid foundation in the networking. This is a prerequisite and recommended certification. What’s Inside the Exam? Cisco certification exams need you to be recognizable with the exam nature and interface. The Cisco certification exam includes: • multiple-choice single answers• multiple-choice multiple answers• drag-and-drops• fill-in-the-blanks• simulations

Before you get the exam, you should be familiar regarding the entire exam type functions most especially when it comes to simulation tools. Such kind of practice let you concentrate with the exam taking efforts in the tests question compared on how you choose and use the tools in the right way. Exam Concentrate with 642-780Year after year the exams changes and add new updates, this is to make sure that those who really learn the Cisco stuff and could practice this can be certified. This has made the CCNA harder, though it increases the reliability and value of exams. Indeed, it is really hard to cram for materials and brain dumps as well as passes the examination, without being capable to arrange the router. What is the Exam Like? 642-780 – Maintaining Cisco Service Provider VPNs and MPLS Networks Preparation focuses heavily with the switching, access list, routing protocol, simulation and subletting. You have to learn on how you can subnet as well. How to be ready with the Exam?How you can prepare for the exam depends in your present know-how and experience in networking along with your chosen certification. Option may include simulations, practice tests, on hand trainings, study materials, and a lot more. Simulations and books are one of the most popular options to prepare for the examination. At the same time, there are updated books in the market these days that can help you prepare for 642-780 exams. With the present materials and study guides, you can be assured to pass the certification exam at one take. This will add in your credibility as certified Cisco professional in the IT world.In the information technology world, Cisco programs are popular and in fact, the most famous certification these days. This was introduced as entry level certifications for Cisco career programs. Cisco is internationally recognized certification certified with competence of internetworking professional in routing, connectivity and switching. And 642-780 exam certifications are one of the first steps.

Cisco Certification

Cisco is the leading company in the world for routers, switches, and other networking equipment, and also specializes in internetworking technologies and services. The company has more then 63,000 employees worldwide and conducts the examination required for the Cisco certification to help locate competent professionals to work in this advanced and competitive field. The exams are difficult since certification can launch a persons career to a whole new level. Today, Cisco’s networking has evolved into a vast array of different subfields, unlike in 1993, when Cisco newly launched its first certification, the CCIE (Cisto Certified Internetwork Expert).

Despite the vast array, only a handful of people succeed in the advanced level CCIE certification examinations. Today, there are an estimated 5,297 active CCIE’s present in the world, with 2,407 of them in the United States.

It is confirmed by these numbers just how difficult it is to get certification, and only candidates with exceptional knowledge have been able to do so.

Seeing that candidates often dreaded the exams, and felt they were too challenging, Cisco introduced two lower-tier certification exams in 1998. These were called lower tiers because of the designation career certifications. The company’s main purpose for introducing these two examinations was so that candidates should first increase their knowledge and confidence by taking the lower-tier certification examinations first, which would help then when they decide to take the professional level CCIE exam. The lower tier exam was called the Associate level exam and led to two different paths for the certified candidate to pursue, which includes the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) and the CCDA (Cisco Certified Design Associate).

This certification is brought about by passing a single exam, and the separate paths are associated with six different paths; namely Design, Switching, Routing, Service Provider, Network Security, Voice, and Storage Networking.

After achieving certification in these lower-tier examinations, candidates can then attempt the advanced level certification, which is the CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) and the CCDP (Cisco Certified Design Professional). To achieve professional level certification, multiple exams need to be passed.

Even though almost all the Cisco certified professionals globally are only just CCNAs or CCDAs (having been unable to pass the professional certification exams) they involve perks and prestige in jobs, due to the fact that they have achieved certification with such a credible and prestigious institution, which gives the employers confidence and a significant career boost. Many CISCO certified professionals have reached amazing career heights due to this one certification.

VPN, Future Of Internet Freedom Without Restrictions

Article by Super VPN

Internet Freedom

When Internet first appeared, a few could assume that it would develop with this speed, both in terms of number of users and speed of internet connection.That growth however wasn’t in same time followed by countries law regulations. Because of it, with time, huge differences began to appear in terms of using internet, which were different from country to country.Many of those countries introduced laws which limited their citizens access to specific Internet resources (networks, sites, user services, etc.). Considering that the basic idea of creating Internet was free exchange of information and access to same, laws like this were conflicted with purpose of Internet existence. This caused the appearance of users who wanted complete internet freedom without restrictions on one side, and laws which imposed different prohibitions on specific internet resources on the other.Aside from that, there is one more important fact which imposes: considering that internet providers have a possibility of keeping track of complete behavior of their users, we come to a conclusion that there is an increased amount of people who want protection of their privacy and anonymous surfing.Also many organizations looking to expand their networking capabilities and reduce their costs which is today very important.It is clear that the solution that is imposed as the best is Virtual Private Network.

What is VPN?

A VPN or Virtual Private Network is a private, secure, communication tunnel between two or more devices across a public network such Internet. One benefit derived from using a VPN is that the “tunnel” protects your data from being “overheard” as it passes over the public Internet. Another is that, when using a VPN connection, your computer “appears” on the campus network as if it were on campus.These VPN devices can be either a computer running VPN software or a special device like a VPN enabled router and allows your home computer to be connected to your office network or can allow two home computers in different locations to connect to each over the Internet. For security it uses features like encryption, encapsulation, authorization and tunnels. VPN have great secure level because encryption is very strong from 128bit – 2048bit and that is the main reason why they becoming increasingly popular with their many benefits.A VPN server is a piece of hardware or software that can acts as a gateway into a whole network or a single computer. It is generally always available and listening for VPN clients to connect to it. This enables any user to access a Private Network securely from anywhere in the world as long as an internet connection is available and the private network provides the user the access to its resources. VPN also allow employees to access information from remote locations, making collaboration possible even when employees are scattered around the globe which can significantly reduce costs of any company.

Types Of VPN

Several computer network protocols have been implemented specifically for use with VPN tunnels. The most popular VPN tunneling protocols are PPTP, L2TP and IPsec. Point to point tunneling protocol (PPTP) is an extension of the pre-existing PPP or point to point protocol. It is the technology that allows the private transmission of data via a public network such as the internet. PPTP is best suited for the remote access applications of VPNs, but it also supports LAN internet-working.

The Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol (L2TP) is an emerging Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard that combines the best features of two existing tunneling protocols: Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) and Microsoft’s Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP).

IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is a security protocol that provides encryption and authentication over the Internet. It can be used as a complete VPN protocol solution or simply as the encryption scheme within L2TP or PPTP.

Speculation About VPN Future

Experts predict that the VPN will continue to grown in popularity as businesses to save money on remote network access for employees. There is many reasons that predict great future for VPNs:

* Works for PC on Windows /Linux/Mac OS

* Works for mobile on Android/Windows/Mobile/iPhone/Blackberry/Symbian

* High level of SSL encryption

* Work over any type of Internet connections (Cable, DSL, dial up, Satellite, Wi-Fi, etc)

* Eliminating the need for expensive long-distance leased lines

* Reducing long-distance telephone charges

* Offloading support costs

* Minimum hardware requirements

* Can provide you with dedicated IP address with which people protect their privacy and surf anonymous without provider logs

Cisco RV 120W Router ? Ideal Solution for Small Businesses with VPN Support

When you start your small business either in home or small office, you should build your own computer networking infrastructure which supports business class features including the VPN capability, VLAN for network security segregation, and threats management for protecting your network security. With VPN (Virtual private network) capability, you can create secure tunneling gateway to gateway or remote user connections. This is to support your business communication to the global internet.

The other business features your computer network should support are wireless access for mobile devices and guest secure access. It is frequent that your business partners need access to the internet from their laptop when they are visiting your office. Providing wireless internet access securely without compromising your private network resources is very essential.

Now, with lack of networking security experts how can you do that? To start your small business, consider Cisco RV 120W wireless VPN router.

What this Product Does

Cisco RV 120W wireless VPN router is an affordable solution for small businesses which includes all your requirements in building a wireless network with business class features. The router is powered by the latest wireless 802.11n technology for high-speed wireless access. With wireless access, your employee can stay productive every where within the network coverage with their laptops – no wires.

Unlike high-performance home wireless routers which typically support the VPN pass-through, the Cisco RV 120W supports the VPN technology natively. When the router supports the VPN pass-through, the router does not support the VPN technology natively but it supports the VPN traffic passing via the router gateway to reach your VPN server.

Cisco RV 120W wireless VPN router supports up to 10 QuickVPN tunnels for remote client access and up to 10 IPSec site-to-site secure tunneling for branch office connectivity.

VLAN and Multiple SSIDs

Can you create Guest secure access with this router? Yes, Cisco RV 120W supports up to four separate virtual networks or SSIDs (Service Set Identifiers) wireless network name. With multiple SSIDs support, you can create guest secure access separate from your private / internal networks. This way, you can provide internet access for your visitors (with their laptop) when they visit your office without compromising your private network.

Cisco RV 120W wireless VPN router includes 4-port Switch which supports the VLAN (virtual LAN). VLAN is very essential in businesses when you require creating network security segregation that meets your business needs. For example you can create separate segment specifically for finance section computer clients. And the beauty with this VLAN is that you can map SSID to VLAN with wireless client isolation. For wireless security connection, the router supports the latest industrial wireless security encryption Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA/WPA2).

With VLANs or SSIDs, communication between different VLANs can only be done with layer 3 devices such as the router or layer 3 switches. Cisco RV 120W supports inter-VLANs communication, so you don’t need to buy separate layer-3 Switch.

Alternate Solutions

Unfortunately, the Cisco RV 120W does not support Cisco ProtectLink. With Cisco ProtectLink you can subscribe in a yearly basis dynamic web filter services to help you block malicious websites. However, you can deploy any Internet security software such as Symantec or BitDefender. Or with more bucks, you can choose Cisco WRVS4400N which supports the Cisco ProtectLink. Cisco WRVS4400N is a Wireless Security Router with 5 IPSec VPN remote users, 4 VLANs and 4 SSIDs with inter-VLAN communication capability, and 4 Gigabit Ethernet ports for high-speed wired connection.

Cisco RV 120W wireless VPN router is an affordable router – ideal solution for small offices or branch offices. For comprehensive security solution (off course with much more money), you can consider any types of UTM (unified threat management) appliances such as Check Point UTM-1, or ProSecure UTM Firewall appliance with SSL and IPSec VPN support. The Prosecure UTM is an all-in-one gateway security appliance which combines patent-pending Stream Scanning Technology with security from Commtouch, Mailshell, and Sophos for internet threat protection.

By Ki Grinsing